The national institute of neurological disorders and stroke have generated a report that shows the statistics related to spinal cord injuries in United States. At present, more than 250,000 Americans are living with spinal cord injury.
The average health care cost incurred in providing treatment to victims of spinal cord injury is $ 4 billion and 80% of the total victims are men. Reports show that 55% of spinal cord victims are aged between 16 and 30 years.
Of the total spinal cord injuries, 37% of injuries are due to vehicular accidents, 28% injuries occur due to quarrels and 6% injuries occur while playing different type of sports.
The spinal column of human beings is made up of 33 bones and it is always collaborated with brain. This collaboration of brain with spinal column forms a central nervous system. To perform any sort of physical activity, both brain and spinal column have prominent role.
A Lumpectomy is the surgical removal of a breast lump. The tissue that is removed is sent to pathology to determine whether it is benign or cancerous. If the tissue is benign you will most likely require no further treatment or surgery. However, if cancer cells have been detected, further surgery may be required.
If the lump is difficult to find it will be located using an ultrasound. A wire may be inserted prior to surgery in order to assist the surgeon locate the lump. This procedure is performed in the radiology department. If your surgeon thinks there is the possibility of having to remove any lymph nodes with the lump, you may also have a test called a lymphoscintogram prior to your surgery. This test locates the lymph nodes closest to the lump and helps to guide the surgeon if these nodes require removal. This test is also performed in the radiology department.
Should there be an early-stage diagnosis, a lumpectomy is performed to remove the lump and a small amount of healthy tissue around it. This procedure is sometimes referred to as a wide local excision, complete local excision, or a partial mastectomy.
After the surgery a pathologist will examine the breast tissue. If there are healthy cells surrounding the lump that has been removed, it is called a clear margin and no further treatment is required.
If the lump and surrounding tissues are cancerous, further extensive surgery may be required. Otherwise, radiotherapy and or chemotherapy treatment may be offered to minimise the risk of the cancer recurring.
Any abnormality in the rhythm or rate of heartbeat is called arrhythmia. Irregular beating of the heart hampers adequate blood flow to the body organs, which can affect their function.
Sometimes arrhythmias are quite difficult to catch by itself as their symptoms can be mild and infrequent. A consultation with an electrophysiologist may be needed if you have the following symptoms.
The most commonly observed symptoms are:
Fluttering sensation in the chest
Shortness of breath
Chest pain or discomfort
Scarring or death of heart tissue due to heart diseases such as coronary heart disease, heart failure and rheumatic heart disease
Previous heart surgery
Obstructive sleep apnoea
Excessive intake of alcohol or caffeine